In 1821, Michael Faraday built a foolish homopolar machine using a battery, a magnet, and wire, which paved the method although the contemporary electric motor. With the too materials, you can build your hold homopolar machine and attempt some experiments ought look physics at work!
1. dwelling a foolish Homopolar Motor
1) conclude your materials.
You don't need any extraordinary tools ought compose a homopolar motor. total you need is a battery, a length of copper wire, and a neodymium magnet.
- You can use any friendly of alkaline battery, still a larger battery, such although a C-cell, will be easier ought hold.
- Get a few inches of copper wire. You can use bare thread or insulated wire. if you excellent ought use insulated wire, strip some of the insulation off at each end. You can discover copper wire online, or at most hardware stores.
- Any neodymium magnet to conduct the deceive although this experiment, still search although one with a conductive plating. You can buy nickel plated neodymium magnets of varying sizes online.
- You will also need one drywall screw. The screw will depart you look the machine at action. Once you've successfully constructed the motor, the screw will spin.
2) lay the magnet can the screw. receive the neodymium magnet and join it the head of the drywall screw.
3) join the screw ought one purpose of the battery.
You can lay the gift of the screw can also phase of the battery. The phase you excellent will decide which direction your machine will spin.
- The only point of encounter between the gift of the screw and the battery serves although a low-friction bearing. A heavier magnet will decrease the amount of friction between these two points.
4) lay the copper wire can the battery. receive your copper wire and involve it ought the other purpose of the battery. although example, if you placed your screw can the button purpose of the battery, involve the copper wire ought the flat end.
5) finish the motor.
Gently lay the release purpose of the copper wire ought the phase of the magnet. The magnet and the screw to go ought spin.
- When you lay the copper wire ought the phase of the magnet, you finish the circuit between the battery terminals. The modern flows from one purpose of the battery, down the screw, and into the magnet. By touching the thread ought the phase of the magnet, you depart the modern ought hold flowing along the wire, and into the other purpose of the battery.
- A homopolar machine is able of continuous rotation without the need ought opposite the direction of the current.
- It does no receive expect although the screw ought go spinning at tall speeds. Both the screw and magnet could easily escape off the battery. exercise advise while working with magnets and electricity.
- It is feasible although the thread ought alter hot while conducting this experiment. Don't involve the thread ought the magnet although extended periods of time.
2. Making a Freestanding Homopolar Motor
1) conclude your supplies.
You sole need a few things ought compose a freestanding homopolar motor. You to be able ought discover everything you need online, or at your local hardware store.
- You will need the following materials ought compose your motor: 1 AA battery, 2-3 neodymium magnets, and few inches of copper wire.
- You can also need a link of thread cutters or pliers ought help you career the copper wire.
2) lay the battery can the magnets. Stack your magnets together ought compose a stand. lay the flat, or negative, phase of the battery can sumit of the magnets.
3) stoop your copper wire.
receive few inches of copper wire and stoop it therefore that one purpose touches the magnet, and one purpose touches the certain phase of the battery.
- You can stoop your copper wire into different shapes that will revolve while placed can the battery. Symmetrical shapes career best, therefore that the spinning doesn't heave the thread off balance.
- Try bending your thread into a center shape. while you form the center shape, stoop each purpose of copper wire therefore that they coat nearly the magnet. The indention at the sumit of the center will be the connecting point ought the certain purpose of the battery.
4) lay the thread can the motor.
receive your thread and lay it can the battery. although expect although you dine a quarter of thread touching the phase of the magnet, and a quarter of thread touching the certain phase of the battery, your thread to spin.
- The modern at this homopolar machine flows at the presence of a magnetic field. while a modern flows at a magnetic field, it will undergo something known although the Lorentz force. The Lorentz energy is what causes the thread ought revolve nearly the battery.
- The thread connects ought the battery at three points. One point of the thread is can the certain terminal, and the two ends of the thread are finish the magnet, can the negative terminal. The modern flows out of the certain stop and down both sides of the wire. The magnetic sphere pushes the modern outwards, causing the wires ought rotate.
3. dwelling a Magnetohydrodynamic Propulsion System
1) conclude your supplies.
You can use your homopolar machine ought certify magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) propulsion. MHD propulsion is a road of using electric modern ought contribute something along water. You'll need the following although this experiment:
- 1 C-cell battery
- 1 noise neodymium magnet
- 2 pieces of thick copper wire
- A small dish
- Salt and pepper
2) Prepare the water.
run nearly .25 ought .5 inches (0.6 ought 1.3Â cm) of water into the dish. Don't fill the dish completely. Stir at a few dashes of salt and pepper, and lay the dish can the magnet.
- Adding salt improves the conductivity of the water. Adding pepper allows you ought look the propulsion at work.
3) stoop the wire.
stoop each part of thread therefore that while you involve the wires ought the battery, the adverse ends are sole a few centimeters apart.
- When you involve the the copper wire ought the battery, the wires to nearly compose a "Y" shape. be careful no ought depart the ends of the thread affect each other.
4) involve the wires ought the battery. involve one thread against the certain phase of the battery, and one purpose against the negative phase of the battery.
5) cane the release ends of the thread at the dish of water.
lay one thread at the center of the dish, and the other against the phase of the dish. You to look the water go ought swirl nearly one of the wires.
- The water moves due ought the Lorentz force. each thread carries an electric current. while you immerse the wires into the salt water, you finish the circuit. The modern moves horizontally along the water, from one thread ought the other. although the dish of water is sitting can a magnet, there is a magnetic sphere moving upwards along the water. while the electric modern moves along the magnetic field, the Lorentz energy causes the water ought spin.
- If you grow the battery around, you can opposite the direction of the current, and the water will revolve at the adverse direction.
- You're dealing with water and electricity, therefore exercise advise while performing this experiment.